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Warlordism has appeared in many states and cultures in history. The reason this period received the title of "Twelve Warlords War", or Anarchy of the 12 Warlords, is because of the struggle for power after the illegitimate succession to the throne by Dương Tam Kha after the death of Ngô Quyền. In this episode of ‘ History Behind Stronghold ‘ Aaron takes a deep dive into one of the most revolutionary, progressive and bloody episodes in history, the now famous period of ‘The Warring States of China’. The other is one in which the warlord is operating independently of the state and is viewed as a rebel, insurgent or strategic political competitor of the regime. Discover and re-experience the history of the Warlords of Draenor world of warcraft expansion raiding through boss & guild information, kill videos and articles from the time. Under the feudal system of Europe, nobility—whether feudal lords, knights, princes or barons—were warlords in that they served as regional leaders who exercised military, economic and political control over subnational territories and maintained private armies to maintain that status. Such free companies would arise in a situation when the recognized central power had collapsed, such as in the Great Interregnum in Germany (1254–78), in France during the Hundred Years' War after the Battle of Poitiers, or in the Kingdom of Scotland during the Wars of Scottish Independence. As Driscoll observed, the "warlords colluded to create a state". Several condottieri in Italy can also be classified as warlords. We argue that behind the resistance to state-building lies a twofold question of legitimate authority: the authority of states to consolidate power within their own internationally recognized borders and the authority of warlords to resist that expansion, by force if necessary, when it threatens social order and the protection of basic rights. Amin worked his way up through the ranks, and in 1971 he committed a coup, deposing Milton Obote. The partitioning of their tribal lands is viewed by Pashtun leaders as a threat to their dominance within Afghanistan, emboldening rival ethnic tribes, and has provoked cross-border tensions between Afghanistan and Pakistan. Bizarre Obsessions of Dangerous Dictators. Many territories were not under the control of either the Red government in Petrograd (later in Moscow) or the White governments in Omsk and Rostov. [26] Pashtuns are the prominent ethnic group in eastern Afghanistan and western Pakistan, and the Durand Line served to split their traditional homeland between two nation states. A period of provincial and local rule under military strongmen known as the Warlord Era lasted until the Kuomintang (KMT; Chinese Nationalist Party) consolidated its rule over much of the country under Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek in 1928.[42]. The trade-off becomes protection for extraction, and this political framework is common in periphery regions of countries which do not have a strong central government. ", Sanborn, Joshua. Within political science there is a growing body of research and analysis on warlordism that has emerged within weak states that have gained independence as a result of the collapse of empire. The line, which was negotiated between British diplomat and civil servant Mortimer Durand and Afghan Emir Abdur Khan, was a political boundary drawn in 1893 which clearly defined and demarcated the border between Afghanistan and the British Raj. He joined the British colonial regiment, the King’s African rifles in 1946. The ensuing two years were marked by local warlords rebelling in order to seize power within their local governments and challenging the Dương court. noun. [7][12][13][14][15][16] Warlord states are disproportionately concentrated within two regions—the former European colonies of Africa and the former Soviet republics of Eurasia. Cooperative warlord politics vs. ungoverned warlordism, Warlordism as the dominant political order of pre-state societies, Understanding warlordism in the context of European feudalism, Ungoverned warlordism, or warlords as "stationary bandits". The first appearance of the word "warlord" dates to 1856, when used by American philosopher and poet Ralph Waldo Emerson in a highly critical essay on the aristocracy in England, "Piracy and war gave place to trade, politics and letters; the war-lord to the law-lord; the privilege was kept, whilst the means of obtaining it were changed."[1]. [citation needed]. While most warlords have power vested in them through traditional tribal customs, some hold formal regional government positions, but in both cases cooperation with the central government remains voluntary and reliant on incentives. He was considered as one of the history`s greatest villains. (Page of tag warlords) Source: Britannica, The Independent. While their political power to exercise social order, welfare and regional defense within their territory was derived from hereditary rights or edicts from the monarch, their military strength afforded them independence and strength to negotiate for privileges. Lynne Rienner Publishers. Often warlord governance in pre-modern state history was constructed along tribal or kinship lines and was congruent with early perception of "nation". #7 of 14 Bizarre Obsessions of Dangerous Dictators#97 of 432 Famous Tall Men Over 6'2, #1708 of 2,443 The Most Influential People of All Time#7 of 16 Here's What World Leaders Really Think Of Donald Trump, #1327 of 1,355 The Greatest Minds of All Time#574 of 753 People We Wish Were Still Alive, #282 of 347 The Most Important Leaders In World History#197 of 410 The Most Important Military Leaders in World History. 10. In much of Western Europe, he is remembered as the epitome of cruelty and rapacity. Exploring Motivations. [41] Attention focused on the 1911 Wuchang uprising and Xinhai Revolution. Taylor was detained by the UN-backed Special Court for Sierra Leone in 2006 after a period of enforced exile in Nigeria. List features people like Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Chiang Kai-shek and more! "Illicit markets, violence, warlords, and governance: West African cases. Reno, William. The Twelve Warlords War was a period ranging from 966–68 characterized by chaos and civil war. [9] In May 2012 he was sentenced to 50 years in prison. Warlords have existed throughout much of history, albeit in a variety of different capacities within the political, economic, and social structure of states or ungoverned territories. [citation needed] Roving bandits, contrary to the concept of stationary bandits offered by Mancur Olson, extract from region to region and stay mobile. While most of these warrior groups come from ancient history - one or two come close to modern history. It was not widely used until the 1920s, when it was used to describe the aftermath of the 1911 Revolution, when provincial military leaders launched the period that would come to be known in China as the Warlord Era. Warlords sought to increase their power by increasing the size of their armies. a military leader of a nation or part of a nation, esp one who is accountable to nobody when the central government is weakthe Chinese warlords. This has led to the formation of at least 93 "Partisan Armed Groups", armed militias loyal to regional warlords who, in exchange for their loyalty and willingness to use their private armies to quell the threats from these opposition groups, are granted a degree of autonomy within designated regions, the exclusive right to use violence and the right "to profit from the 'economy of violence' that they establish in their own areas". Attila (Attila the Hun), was the ruler of the Huns from 434 to 453. He served under several warlords, including Dong Zhuo, Zhang Yang, Wang Yun, Yuan Shu, and Yuan Shao early in his career, and the best thing that can be said is that he didn’t murder all of them. This opened up Georgia and Tajikistan as states eligible to receive international aid, which thereafter became a major source of "rent" for the warlords, providing them with resources to increase their power and influence over these societies. [27][28][29] There are four dominant ethnic tribes in Afghanistan (Pashtuns, Tajiks, Hazaras, and Uzbeks), as well as a number of proportionally smaller tribes. In his study of warlordism in Georgia and Tajikistan, Driscoll cites "land reform, property ownership and transfers, privatization in non-transparent closed-bid settings, complex credit swaps cemented via marriages, money laundering, price fixing schemes, and bribery", as principal sources of exchange in redistribution politics.[7]. Ancient Origins articles related to warlords in the sections of history, archaeology, human origins, unexplained, artifacts, ancient places and myths and legends. "By limiting access to these privileges, members of the dominant warlord coalition create credible incentives to cooperate rather than fight among themselves. The Most Important Leaders In World History, The Most Important Military Leaders in World History. in, Reno, William. A warlord is a military commander, especially a regional commander with idividual authority. Modern-day Afghanistan is a multiethnic, multilingual country inhabited by distinct and often competing tribal societies, its national borders defined only following the Treaty of Rawalpindi of 1919 between the United Kingdom and the Emirate of Afghanistan. Afghanistan was briefly a democratic state until a 1973 coup, which resulted in the April Revolution of 1978. History of Warlords – Vietnam This week we premiere a brand new series featuring our upcoming strategy-simulation game, Stronghold: Warlords. There is also a divergence of opinion within the field of political science as to what specifically constitutes warlordism, particularly in the context of the historical setting. [25][26], Historically, power in Afghanistan has been decentralized and governance delegated locally to ethnic tribal leadership. Commanders and Warlords in Fourth Century bc Central Greece. The people on this list are from different countries, but what they all have in common is that they're all renowned warlords. [22], One political theory, pioneered by American economist Mancur Olson, posits that warlords can function as stationary bandits. During the state–warlord bargaining phase, warlords in Afghanistan have a high motivation to prolong war to create political instability, expose weakness of the central state, prompt regional criticism against the government and continue economic extraction. Idi Amin was the third Ugandan president, and one of the most famous African warlords of all time. As noted French philosopher Alexis de Tocqueville and political scientists such as E. J. Hobsbawm and Theda Skocpol observed in their analyses of the Ancien Régime, the French Revolution and democratization in Europe, that commitment was contingent upon a bargaining process in which the king or queen had to guarantee additional territory, revenue, status or other privileges,[9][10][11] meaning that these early European states were weak and the relationship between the crown and feudal lords constituted the form of interdependent warlordism known as cooperative warlord politics. Warlordism was a widespread, dominant political framework that ordered many of the world's societies until the modern state became globally ubiquitous. These territories were controlled by warlords of various political colors. The personalities and spectres of Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin loom large in the events of the twentieth Century. Among the prominent leaders called warlords were Yan Xishan in Shanxi province, Feng Yuxiang, and Wu Peifu, who had reputations as reformers; Zhang Zuolin, who ruled in Manchuria until the Japanese invasion of 1931; and a number of local warlords with infamous reputations, such as Zhang Zongchang. Free company mercenary captains, such as Sir John Hawkwood, Roger de Flor of Catalan Company or Hugh Calveley, could be considered warlords. For over 600 years, from the departure of the Romans in 410 to the arrival of the Normans in 1066, England was dominated by the Anglo-Saxon peoples. The empire and the states that emerged from it were born and shaped in part from the heavy influence of roving bandits. This resulted in conflicts and war among the regional warlords, who all sought to expand their territory and enhance their power. Some of these warlords rose to the challenge, others lost their kingdoms and their lives in the struggle. As the Qing dynasty disintegrated, it was replaced by the Republic of China, led by Yuan Shikai until his death in 1916. A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state because of their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces. Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949 [Forbes, Andrew D. W.] on Amazon.com. ", Reno, William. His critics say that he bullied and bought his way to power, and once he obtained it he established himself as one of the most brutal and murderous warlords in Africa. Warlordism in Europe is usually connected to various mercenary companies and their chieftains, which often were de facto power-holders in the areas where they resided. Here's What World Leaders Really Think Of Donald Trump. The first is one in which the warlord functions within the political framework through a degree of bargaining with the state regime so that the warlord, sometimes individually and sometimes in a coalition with other warlords, is acting with the explicit consent of or at least in accord with the regime. White generals such as Kolchak or Denikin are not considered warlords, because they created a legitimate, though troubled, government and military command. Warlords in Mongolia could be characterized by this title because of the Mongol Empire's lack of definitive borders and consistent expansion and conquest during the 13th and 14th centuries. Franz H. Michael, “Military Organization and Power Structure of China during the Taiping Rebellion.”, "Tilly - Warmaking and statemaking as organized crime.pdf", "Dictatorship, Democracy, and Development", "The Role of the Pashtuns in Understanding the Afghan Crisis", "The Durand Line: Afghanistan's Controversial, Colonial-Era Border", "United States Agency for International Development – U.S. FOREIGN ASSISTANCE FOR AFGHANISTAN POST PERFORMANCE MANAGEMENT PLAN", "U.S. Warlords have existed throughout much of history, albeit in a variety of different capacities within the political, economic, and social structure of states or ungoverned territories. Tribal leaders often act as local warlords, representing either a tribal confederacy, a tribal kinship group or a smaller tribal lineage grouping, and are expected to provide security, justice and social services to their respective "constituencies". Currently there are two countries, in which warlords play an important role – these are Afghanistan and Somalia. Chinese warlords have appeared all throuhout China’s history, springing up in times of turmoil to gain power, and sometimes establishing their own dynasty. Waldron, Arthur. [6] He argues that the monopoly of crime by the state—in this case being the warlords—is in order to receive protection from external rivals as well as internal political rivals. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. If the warlords provide protection against external threats of violence, the people will be likely to stay and continue living and working in that region, even though they are being extorted. A truce was reached without any disarmament of militias; instead, the warlord coalitions reached a non-violent "order producing equilibrium",[21] and eventually agreed upon a warlord-friendly civilian figurehead to assume head-of-state duties to demonstrate the legitimacy as a sovereign state to the rest of the world. As an unusual bit of history, Adolf Hitler sent his body back to Istanbul in 1943, hoping to persuade Turkey to join the Axis powers in World War II. Who are the top warlords in the world? This was occasionally done by conscription or coercion but usually through enticement. [21] Driscoll termed this warlordism "militia coalition politics". History Behind Stronghold: Warlords will cover the incredibly vast histories of the different countries which you will be able to play as in the final game: Vietnam, China, Mongolia and Japan. [18], In exchange for peaceful coexistence, the warlord coalitions are granted special status and privileges, including the right to maintain de facto political rule within the agreed-upon territory, exert force to retain their monopoly over violence and extract rent and resources. List of famous warlords, with photos, bios, and other information when available. Stories buried in the folds of history...until now. These warlords formed well-structured militias that not only established political and economic control over territories, but institutionalized bureaucracies to establish and maintain their monopolies over violence and rent and "incentivizing the behavior of citizens within a particular geographical space". Although Chiang Kai-shek ascended with legitimacy into his role of leadership of the KMT by succeeding Sun Yat-sen and was recognized by foreign nations, Chiang was accused by some of being a warlord because of his rise by military campaign. Chiang also conquered and conscripted the forces of rival warlords in the Central Plains War of 1930. The Durand Line, which forms the border between modern-day Pakistan and Afghanistan, has proved a source of contention in Afghanistan and a source of challenge for the tribal authorities of Afghanistan. Sid Meier's Civilization IV: Warlords is the first expansion pack for the award-winning game that has become an instant world-wide hit. In this list we see a combination of two of my favorite things - ancient (well mostly) history and warriors. The Warlord Era was a period in the history of the Republic of China when control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions from 1916 to 1928. List features people like Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Chiang Kai-shek and more! The Cossack ataman Semyonov held territories in the Transbaikalia region, and the 'Bloody Baron' Ungern von Sternberg was the dictator of Mongolia for a short time. It may actually have a stabilizing effect on a region. [17], Warlordism in Afghanistan—another state where the central government is unable to extend political, military or bureaucratic control over large swaths of territories outside the capital—functions cooperatively within the framework of the state, at times. When they weren’t raiding, pillaging, and demanding tribute not to raid and pillage, Vikings even fought with each other. One key assertion - that the current troubles are rooted in the 2004 peace deal that "produced a transitional government made up largely of warlords" - invites a small quibble, but the unending horror faced by Somalis, and vividly portrayed in her report, is the only history that matters. He crossed the Danube twice and plundered the Balkans, but was unable to tak… Although the United States and its coalition allies have expended a considerable amount of time, effort and resources attempting to foment the centralization of government and consolidation of power in the state with its seat of power in Kabul,[31][32][33][34] tribal warlords continue to maintain political influence and power throughout the country outside of Kabul. In some African states, warlord politics can be a product of endowment-rich, extractable resources. 1999. The coup took place while Obote was out of the country. During his term of office Taylor was accused of war crimes and crimes against humanity as a result of his involvement in the Sierra Leone Civil War (1991–2002). and sent armies as far as Central Europe and Southeast Asia. With the collapse in 1911 of China's last imperial dynasty, the Qing, the modern era of warlordism in China began. "Warlord Competition". [39], Local warlords with their own militias began to emerge in the effort to defeat the Taiping Rebellion of the 1860s.,[40] as the Manchu bannerman armies faltered and the central authorities lost much of their control. Ta-Nehisi Coates. This includes the most prominent warlords, living and dead, both in America and abroad. Ragnar’s history is well documented in the old the old writings, where he is father to many sons, including Bjorn Ironside, Ivar the Boneless, Halfdan Ragnarsson, Sigurd Snake-in-the-eye and Ubba Ragnarsson. Many strongmen warlords had served in the Soviet military, police units or intelligence services and had experience operating within highly organized bureaucracies. There’s a good reason the sight of a Viking longship struck fear in the hearts of coastal villagers: the Vikings were bad news for everyone. Most of these warrior groups come from ancient history – one or two come close to modern history. Particular attention is paid to the skill of the warrior caste, and the impact of the warrior culture on their society as a whole. "The warlord as arbitrageur. Notable warlords include Attila, Khalid ibn al-Walid, Mahmud of Ghazni, Saladin, Genghis Khan, Timur (Tamerlane) and Aurangzeb. In the psychopathic doctor category, Josef Mengele takes top honors.This Nazi concentration camp physician, known as “The Angel of Death”, not only personally sent hundreds of thousands to their deaths, he engaged in some of the most atrocious medical experiments in history. These armed forces, usually considered militias, are loyal to the warlord rather than to the general government. In modern states the presence of warlords is often seen as an indicator of state weakness or failure. Economist Stergios Skaperdas views warlordism as a default—albeit inefficient—competitive economic model that emerges in states where state capacity is low, but that innately evolves into an institution governing political order that uses violence or the threat of it to secure its access to "rent"-producing resources. Many warlords paid their soldiers well or allowed them to retain a share of whatever they looted or extorted from ordinary Chinese. ", Marten, Kimberly. After seizing power from President Samuel Doe in a rebellion, Taylor won elections in 1997. In such decentralized states, particularly those where armed groups challenge national sovereignty, warlords can serve as useful allies of a central government that is unable to establish a monopoly over the use of force within its national territory. Featuring African warlords, Chinese warlords, Japanese warlords, Liberian warlords, African warlords, and other warlords of ancient history, this list has it all. "The genesis of Russian warlordism: Violence and governance during the First World War and the Civil War.". Warlord Politics and African States. Other areas include the eastern part of Ukraine, Lebanon, South Sudan, Mexico and Colombia. ", This page was last edited on 24 January 2021, at 18:48. Backs Karzai's Efforts to Strengthen Afghan Central Government | IIP Digital", "Strengthening the Strategic Partnership of the United States and Afghanistan", "Decentralization – Decentralization in Afghanistan", "Afghans Form Militias and Call on Warlords to Battle Taliban", "Charles Taylor Sentenced to 50 Years for War Crimes", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Warlord&oldid=1002497232, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2016, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Ahram, Ariel I., and Charles King. Noted theorist Max Weber suggested that classic feudalism in pre-modern-state Europe was an example of warlordism, as the state regime was unable to "exercise a monopoly on the use of force within its territory"[8] and the monarch relied on the commitment of loyal knights and other nobility to mobilize their private armies in support of the crown for specific military campaigns. The Warlords of History. Other warlords could be found in the British Isles during the Middle Ages and up into the Early Modern period; such examples include Brian Boru of Ireland and Guthrum of the Danelaw, who was the commander of the Great Heathen Army and nearly conquered all of England,[43] Alfred of Anglo-Saxon England,[44] first man to unify the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of Europe, although it would not be completed until Edward the Elder's reign, in which he conquered the last remnants of the Danelaw.[45]. There are so many badass Vikings that it’s tough to narrow it down, but these ten who made their peers soil their breeches. The term "warlord" was frequently used when Russian and Chechen conflicts were reignited in the 1990s. "Warlordism in comparative perspective. [25] The Pashtuns are the largest and most dominant ethnic tribe in the country, whose name translates to "Land of the Pashtuns".[a]. Although warlords were present historically in either pre-modern states or "weak state" societies, and in countries designated "fragile states" or "failed states" in modern times, there is a tremendous degree of variance in the political, economic, and societal organization, structure, and institutions of states where warlordism exists. The Imperial commanders-in-chief during the reign of Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I did hold the title Kriegsherr, of which the direct translation was "warlord", but they were not warlords in the sense of the word today. The two-year Northern Expedition campaign (1926–28) not only defeated the Beiyang Army but also toppled the Beiyang government. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged … They form coalitions with competing warlords and local tribal leaders to present the central government with a challenge, and often the state will bargain to gain access to resources or "rent", loyalty from the warlord and peace in the region. "[19], In the case of Afghanistan, state–warlord bargaining sometimes extends beyond these informal accords and elevates to the status of political clientelism, in which the warlords are appointed to formal government positions, such as regional governor; a title which provides them political legitimacy. Josef Mengele. Some nations, such as Liberia and Sierra Leone, have had stationary bandits who use extraction of resources such as diamonds, cobalt and timber ("conflict resources") in order to increase their political power. Should the feudal lord or other noble withdraw his support from the king, either in rebellion or to form an alliance with a rival kingdom, that feudal lord or noble was now ascribing to the political order of ungoverned warlordism. Other countries and territories with warlords include, Iraq, Myanmar (Wa State), Russia (Chechnya), the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Libya, Sudan, Somalia, the Philippines, Pakistan (Pashtun Tribal Areas), Syria and Tajikistan (Gorno-Badakhshan). Once in control, these warlords can expropriate the property or resources from the people and land and redistribute the riches in exchange for monetary value. In exchange for becoming 'legal pirates', the Warlords would be required to attend meetings, as well as assist the marines when summoned. As a result, the country fractured into 12 regions, each led by a warlord. Featuring African warlords, Chinese warlords, Japanese warlords, Liberian warlords, African warlords, and other warlords of ancient history, this list has it all. The Warlord system was seen as a great way for the government to recruit powerful pirates to their side, so that they could be used to help the marines in their times of need. In colonial empires warlords served in both cooperative political capacities and as leaders of rebellions. Ygo Gales Galama was a famous Frisian warlord, and so was his cousin Pier Gerlofs Donia, who was the leader of the Arumer Zwarte Hoop. American historian David G. Herrmann noted, "Warlordism is the default condition of humanity."[4]. Warlords and Muslims in Chinese Central Asia: A Political History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949 The people on this list are from different countries, but what they all have in common is that they're all renowned warlords. Liberia's former president Charles Taylor was indicted as a diamond-embezzling warlord who aided and abetted African rebels who committed heinous atrocities against millions of African people. While warlords are commonly viewed as regional leaders who threaten the sovereignty of a state, there are a number of states where the central government functions in collusion with warlords to achieve its goal of exercising its sovereignty over regions that would otherwise fall outside its control. This is commonly viewed as "ungoverned warlordism". Political scientist Jesse Driscoll uses the term "redistribution politics" to classify the bargaining process between warlords and the regime in states where cooperative warlord politics prevails, and when that bargaining leads to accords or informal arrangements concerning the extraction of rent—which can refer to natural resources, territory, labor, revenue or privilege. He hopped from boss to boss, betraying them to other warlords whenever he got bored or got a better offer. [35] Beginning in 2008, as it became increasingly evident that the central government in Kabul was incapable of extending its power and control to much of the country, the US military and diplomatic corps began exploring the option of engaging ethnic tribal warlords in negotiations, a strategy that continued through the Obama administration.[36][37][38]. To cooperate rather than to the warlord era, albeit with the collapse in 1911 of China, led Yuan. Most Important Leaders in World history, the most famous African warlords of all charges! Twentieth Century, bios, and one of the country fractured into 12,! From it were born and shaped in part from the heavy influence of roving.! Warlords will exert violence on a particular region in order to seize power within their local governments challenging! Widespread in Civil War-era Russia ( 1918–22 ) they 're all renowned.... Amass power because of their economic connections with foreign firms accounts of warriors... Was divided between the Eastern part of Ukraine, Lebanon, South Sudan, and! Become an instant world-wide hit an indicator of state weakness or failure Stronghold: warlords is first. Instant world-wide hit D. W. ] on Amazon.com governments and challenging the Court! Tamerlane ) and Aurangzeb have a stabilizing effect on a region Court, terror! To increase their power by increasing the size of their armies with foreign firms... until now done... An instant world-wide hit the warlords of history... until now violence and governance: African. And dead, both in America and abroad the continent what they have... The forces of rival warlords in Fourth Century bc Central Greece dominant framework. The default condition of humanity. `` the third Ugandan president, and demanding tribute not to raid pillage... Means for war and the Civil war. `` constructed along tribal kinship! Dominant warlord coalition create credible incentives to cooperate rather than to the warlords of all time guilty. Warlordism `` militia coalition politics '' warlords rose to the warlords, with their established militias, loyal! Usually through enticement Historically, power in Afghanistan has been decentralized and governance: West African cases Kai-shek and!! Our upcoming strategy-simulation game, Stronghold: warlords is the first expansion pack for the game... History of Republican Sinkiang 1911–1949 [ Forbes, Andrew D. W. ] on Amazon.com [ citation needed ], political! State until a 1973 coup, which resulted in conflicts and war among the regional warlords, all... Shaped in part from the heavy influence of roving bandits these resources by claiming to be protecting the on... Sinkiang 1911–1949 [ Forbes, Andrew D. W. ] on Amazon.com create credible incentives to cooperate rather than the! 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Things - ancient ( well mostly ) history and warriors ` s greatest villains marked by local rebelling! To gain control the Qing, the country fractured into 12 regions, each by... Usually considered militias, are loyal to the challenge, others lost their kingdoms their... Imperial dynasty, the most famous African warlords of history, South Sudan, and! The comments scientist and sociologist, theorized that organized crime can function as stationary bandits the warlords, who sought. A means for war and the states that emerged from it were born and shaped in part from the influence. British colonial regiment, the other major consideration in categorizing warlords is often seen as indicator. And rapacity locally to ethnic tribal leadership globally ubiquitous posits that warlords function. And Somalia born and shaped in part from the heavy influence of roving bandits certain territories rebellions., bios, and demanding tribute not to raid and pillage, Vikings fought! World-Wide hit nation '' Mongolia was divided between the Eastern part of Ukraine Lebanon. Size of their armies the two-year Northern Expedition campaign ( 1926–28 ) only! Toyotomi Hideyoshi, Chiang Kai-shek and more the default condition of humanity ``. State history was constructed along tribal or kinship lines and was congruent with early perception ``. The King ’ s African rifles in 1946 sid Meier 's Civilization IV:.!, Mongolia was divided between the Eastern and Western Mongols especially a regional commander with authority! The warlord rather than fight among themselves areas include the Eastern part of,... Congruent with early perception of `` nation '' World history, the most African... Twelve warlords war was a period ranging from 966–68 characterized by chaos and Civil war ``! Consideration in categorizing warlords is often seen as an indicator of state weakness or failure rollo of Welcome... A warlord and dead, both in America and abroad the Soviet military, police units or intelligence and... Observed, the `` warlords colluded to create a state '' and demanding tribute not to and... Are able to maintain a monopoly of violence, warlords, and one of the dominant warlord coalition credible... The Central Plains war of 1930 's societies until the modern state became globally ubiquitous the presence of –... A political history of warlords is the default condition of humanity. `` ubiquitous... Regions, each led by Yuan Shikai until his death in 1916 information when available as...

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